One of the best-known artists with whom John McLaughlin worked in the 1960s was Georgie Fame. There would be an ongoing association between 1962 and 1968: firstly as a full band member during a non-recording phase, then as an uncredited session player on various singles, then as a kind of special guest in a live residency at a London theatre and finally as a credited session/guest player on an album.
Perhaps surprisingly, given the popularity and profile of Georgie Fame at the time and since, there is still an air of vagueness and uncertainty about aspects of John’s involvement in Fame’s ‘60s career. When exactly did he leave the Blue Flames? What subsequent records did he play on? Was he in the band at the theatre residency or just doing a support thing? Are there any photographs?

On the last point, it would seem there are photos of John with the Blue Flames circa 1962. Certainly, Georgie has some. I wasn’t able to access them for inclusion in the book but perhaps such a circumstance only enhances the enigma. As to the other questions, I think the contents of Bathed In Lightning manages to close in on them – to surround them in a finite space without exactly taking them into custody. Along the way, there are some suspects we can discount as red herrings.

Fame expert Uli Twelker was working on his book There’s Nothing Else To Do: Georgie Fame And His Music during the same period that I was working on Bathed In Lightning and we were able to help each other out on some matters. Actually, one of the pleasures of writing a book about a period of time in popular culture is coming into contact, almost inevitably, with others working on books or documentaries in the same area and sharing information, ideas or just a bit of moral support. Writing is a lonely business otherwise.

Uli was a great help on discographical questions and very kindly probed Georgie on my behalf on his associations with John. It’s no criticism of Georgie to say that he’s a man who is focused on his privacy these days. He’s not easy to reach for interviews and I understand that he has mixed feelings about his experiences in the record business at that time. During an interview with Georgie for his own project, Uli very kindly asked a couple of questions on my behalf. While the answers arrived too late for inclusion in Bathed In Lightning, Uli is happy for them to appear here.

But first here’s a scene-setting extract from Bathed In Lightning:

Born in Lancashire in 1943, Clive Powell had left home at 16 to seek fame in the first wave of British rock’n’roll. He found it, quite literally: after a false start backing forgotten rocker Rory Blackwell, impresario Larry Parnes – a man obsessed with changing people’s names to abstract nouns – had christened him Georgie Fame and made him pianist in Billy Fury’s backing band, the Blue Flames. With Fury, Fame saw Britain alongside American rock’n’roll icons Gene Vincent and Eddie Cochran in 1960 - an infamous tour which crippled Vincent and resulted in Cochran’s death in a road accident. In mid ‘61, after a falling-out with Parnes over musical differences, Georgie and the rest of the Blue Flames were out of a job.

            ‘We were fed up with the British rock thing,’ Georgie later explained. ‘We had been listening to Ray Charles, Louis Prima and King Pleasure, and we wanted to do some of that – but gigs were impossible to find.’[1]

            Georgie (or a ghost writer) described his change in fortunes in period pop-speak in the 1965 Radio Luxembourg Annual. Having left Billy Fury, Georgie was kicking his heels for some months, broke, at the flat of his friend Mike O’Neill in Soho, listening to Mike’s collection of jazz records (many of the same names which had appealed to John McLaughlin):

            ‘One night a friend took me down to the Flamingo Club in London. It was crazy there, full of happy coloured people having a ball with some swinging rhythm-and-blues band… One Sunday I arrived there to find they were short of a band. ‘Let me have a go,’ I asked. We grabbed a group together and went down a bomb! In fact, Rik Gunnell, who owns the club and later became my manager, was so impressed he took me on permanently… With the Blue Flames I began to build a following for our rhythm-and-blues and jazz… From one night a week we progressed to doing all-night sessions on Fridays. I was mad because I could never make up the sleep I lost, but, somehow, it soon didn’t matter. Then we got the Saturday and Monday dates and I began to learn more about the music I was playing… American GIs would come to the club and bring me records by people like Mose Allison and Oscar Brown Jnr. I was learning all the time. Georgie Fame and the Blue Flames were swinging like mad.’[2]
(…)

The Blue Flames were to dominate the scene at the Flamingo – arguably London’s most happening ‘underground’ venue of the time – from March 1962 until January 1965, when Fame exploded nationally with his debut hit ‘Yeh Yeh’. For much of that period, from June 1962 through to March/April 1963, a key part of their sound and reputation as an exciting, unique fusion of R&B and jazz, with a bit of soul and West Indian groove thrown in, was John McLaughlin.

            The link in the Fame/McLaughlin chain was tenor saxophonist Mick Eve. Mick would be a galvanising force all round in the early days of the Blue Flames, organising their rehearsals and constantly refreshing the repertoire with new material.
‘If it hadn’t been for Mick Eve, there wouldn’t have been any band,’ said Georgie, in 1974. ‘He brought Johnny McLaughlin down and it was because of him that Glenn Hughes [later] joined the band.’[3]

            Mick joined the Blue Flames in May 1962, a few weeks ahead of John. As he explained to Pete Frame: ‘My most recent band [the US bases sextet], which included Brian Auger, Glenn Hughes and John McLaughlin, used to play the Flamingo – so we all knew each other. We used to play jazz there - but we did other gigs backing [British rock’n’rollers] Dickie Pride, Davy Jones, Terry Dene and so on… so the Blue Flames was like a fusion of both sides – jazz rock!’[4]

            ‘I heard the band and that was enough for me,’ says Mick, ‘hearing this 17 year old singing like Mose Allison. I thought, ‘I can’t compete with this – I’d rather join it!’ And they wanted a guitarist ‘cos Colin Green didn’t want to do it anymore. We tried to get Joe Moretti, but his wife didn’t want him to do it. At the time he was backing Eddie Calvert at the London Palladium, getting £12 a week and she thought he’d made it now, ‘cos he was at the Palladium. Alright, we were only getting £2 or £5 a night or whatever – but he would have made his £12 back, alright, doing the gigs. We were doing so many of them.’

            When Mick Eve joined Georgie Fame & the Blue Flames in May 1962, it coincided with a move up from the Monday night ‘Twist session’ (promoted on the back of a short-lived dance craze) to a Monday and Thursday night residency. The addition of Friday and Saturday All-Nighter sessions was but a few months away. Aside from Georgie, the other musicians in the band were Billy Fury-era veterans Tex Makins (bass) and Red Reece (drums) plus new recruits Joe Moretti (guitar) and Speedy Acquaye (congas). When Joe left after a few weeks, Mick knew the very man to replace him.

There are, alas, no recordings of John with the Blue Flames during this exciting time (although there are several awe-struck recollections of John’s contribution to the band from other musicians and punters in the book). The closest we can get to the sound of the Blue Flames at the Flamingo during John’s tenure is a live album, Rhythm And Blues At The Flamingo, recorded there in 1963, not long after John had moved on to the Graham Bond Quartet. Aside from a couple of low-key instrumental singles on a tiny independent label, the album was the band’s first release. It was recorded by writer/producer Ian Samwell, who brought in session guitarist Big Jim Sullivan to augment the band for the night of the recording. Both Ian and Big Jim were good friends of John throughout the decade.

The live album – atmospheric and exciting, like the same-period recordings of Merseybeat icons the Big Three at the Cavern in Liverpool – became a sort of cameo player, or perhaps more accurately an Alfred Hitchcock-esque ‘McGuffin’, in London music scenester/svengali Ronan O’Rahilly’s founding of Britain’s first pirate radio station the following year. Pirate radio, which existed and thrived from 1964-67 in Britain, and its TV equivalent, Ready Steady Go!, which spanned a very similar period, were the above-ground embodiment of the Mod movement: clothes, music, lifestyle, aspiration. That movement in a sense fuelled John’s career as a club player during the middle ‘60s, first with the Blue Flames and subsequently with Graham Bond, with Ronnie Jones and with Herbie Goins. It was a time when the boundaries between R&B, soul and jazz were very fluid and not at all as codified as we would now understand, even expect.

Here’s an extract from one of the bonus chapters in the ebook edition of Bathed In Lighting, on the London Mod scene:
In a way, Georgie Fame & the Blue Flames were responsible for changing the world, or so the Scene Club’s co-owner/manager, 24-year-old Ronan O’Rahilly, would have had people believe. His pirate radio station Radio Caroline began broadcasting from a ship just outside British territorial waters in March 1964. It was swiftly followed by rival station Radio Atlanta and then by Radio London and a host of others, all broadcasting pop, soul and R&B to millions of kids in Britain. Ronan’s widely reported impetus for creating the station was simply that he had made a record independently for Georgie Fame & the Blue Flames and was appalled to discover, on touting it at the BBC and Radio Luxembourg, that airplay was a closed shop. Either you were an established artiste (warranting BBC attention) or you were on EMI, Decca, Phillips or Pye (who all bought slabs of time on Radio Luxembourg).
It was a great story. Everyone likes the idea of an underdog fighting for his right to fair play. What didn’t quite chime on closer examination was that Ronan had made no such record. Ian Samwell had produced, for EMI, the LP Rhythm And Blues At The Flamingo, released in January 1964. Radio Caroline would have happened anyway – as, almost simultaneously, Radio Atlanta did. Pirate radio, or something to bridge the demand/access disparity with popular music airplay in Britain, was a development that was surely inevitable. A fleet of rusting old ferries anchored three miles offshore, beyond the reach of existing UK law, was merely the solution that caught on.         

            The pirate stations would broadcast unchecked until the passing of the Marine Broadcasting Offences Act in August 1967. Radio 1, launched by the BBC in September 1967 and staffed largely by presenters from the pirates would fill the gap. BBC Radio would belatedly join the Swinging Sixties. After a fashion. As Nik Cohn put it: ‘After three years, everything was right back where it had started – you switched your radio on and you couldn’t hear pop when you wanted it, you were stuck with Tom Jones and Engelbert Humperdinck instead… Government-sponsored pop…’[5]

Georgie Fame & the Blue Flames second LP, a studio set called Fame At Last, released in October 1964, was also produced by the late Ian Samwell. The Blue Flames had no guitarist in their line-up at this point, yet a mysterious guitarist is audible on four of the tracks on Fame At Last.

Ian was asked once, many years later, if he could name the musician involved. He couldn’t recall but suggested that ‘John McLaughlin is a good bet. He was the best session player in town and he lived just down the street from me.’ [6]
The tracks in question are those arranged by Earl Guest: ‘Let The Sunshine In’, ‘The Monkey Time’, ‘Monkeying Around’ and ‘Pride And Joy’. The guitar, purely rhythmic, doesn’t suggest John either sound-wise or style-wise. Colin Green, the Blue Flames’ original guitarist who was to rejoin in late ’65, told me: ‘I did record some tracks with Clive around that time [mid ‘64] but can’t recall if the Fame At Last tracks were amongst them. (Jim Sullivan may have done some as well).’

Ian Samwell’s recollection – or rather, his off the cuff guess – must come with the caveat that John McLaughlin didn’t become the in-demand session man that he describes until a little later (although his earliest known recordings as a hired hand, including a Dionne Warwick LP produced by Burt Bacharach, do indeed date from 1964).  

Nevertheless, in terms of the discography, part of the work has been to discount some titles to which John’s involvement has been attributed in previous listings, online or elsewhere. And I believe we can safely discount Fame At Last.

Colin Green had rejoined the Blue Flames as their guitarist in time for the band’s two-year run of chart successes, beginning with ‘Yeh Yeh’, spanning 1965-66. The collapse of the band in October ’66 was largely down to exhaustion and a persistent tendency for its members to succumb to dependencies. Georgie would continue as a solo artist, and continue having successes as a recording artist, in the years immediately subsequent to this, expanding his influences and the instrumental palette of his releases along the way. This is the period in which the shadowy figure of John McLaughlin reappears in his tale.

Here’s another extract from the book:    
                                                                                     
Since calling time on the chaos of the Blue Flames at the end of 1966, Georgie Fame had been doing solid business as a recording artist, and had performed convincingly at the Festival Hall with the Harry South Big Band as well as touring Europe with the Count Basie Orchestra.

            Asked at the end of 1967 if he would ever give up pop for jazz he replied: ‘No, I couldn’t do it. It would be like cutting off one of my arms. It’s not a matter of compromising one or the other but of liking what you do.’[7]

            ‘For my money he’s equally good at either [pop or jazz],’ opined one critic, ‘and fans’ complaints that he should stick to one or the other seem pointless… because most of the time it simply isn’t possible to characterise his performances.’[8]    
     
            With a new single, ‘The Ballad Of Bonnie & Clyde’, heading towards No.1 in the UK and across Europe, Georgie was in a position to indulge himself. He began a season at London’s Mayfair Hotel on Friday December 22 1967, which became three weeks by public demand.

‘The first half of the show is with a quartet and is very experimental,’ he explained, ‘with things like three part harmonies with voice, guitar and flute and new treatments of new tunes as well as some standards. The second half is with the whole band. I’m trying to utilise all the band has to offer and I’ve added Johnny McLoughlin [sic] for the gig. He’s tremendous. He’s definitely the best guitarist working outside America.’[9]

            Drummer Jon Hiseman had joined Georgie’s band by October ‘67, from the wreckage of Graham Bond’s dis-Organisation, replacing Hughie Flint. It was a blessed normality, with reliable money and decent hotels. If Jon had any tinges of regret because of the sheer excitement, musically, which a gig with Graham Bond still had the capacity to be, these were allayed by Georgie’s plan for his opening turn at the Mayfair:

            ‘[It was] a small theatre inside the big Mayfair Hotel,’ says Jon, ‘and Georgie had the idea that he would get John McLaughlin, to open the show. So we would go on as a kind of jazz quartet, with John, myself, the bass player [probably Rick Brown] and Lyn Dobson on tenor, I think. Georgie wasn’t going to play on this section – but he was standing in the wings and he loved it. He’d be bopping from one foot to another – ‘Yeeeeah!’, you know. The audience couldn’t see him but he was really into it, and we were playing some seriously ‘out’ stuff, and I mean ‘out’! And when his manager turned up [a few dates into the run], Rik Gunnell, he was absolutely horrified, ‘cos Georgie was using this to put on something that people hadn’t paid money for at all.’

            With his new single (recorded with session men) taking off, Georgie was in demand for promotional activities across Europe and America, and in mid February his live band were laid off. Nevertheless, a new LP was being recorded in February/March, titled The Third Face Of Fame (following on from his previous live/studio collection, The Two Faces Of Fame), and John was hired on guitar. There would be a 13-piece horn section and pianist Gordon Beck, ‘one of the shining lights of the British Jazz scene’.[10]

            With arrangements by Derek Wadsworth, Harry South and Tubby Hayes, the album mixed material by Gershwin and other veteran American writers with Mose Allison, Lennon/McCartney and Donovan. There was a vaudeville, consciously faux retro feel. As the original LP notes explain: ‘Producer Mike Smith… originally intended the LP to be a spoof on the music scene of the 1930s, highlighting Georgie’s gift for comedy, but in the event it has transpired to be something wider in scope.’[11]

            The dry comedic aspect – gently exaggerated regional accents – certainly appealed to the man at The Gramophone, who felt the album ‘makes me wonder whether there’s a possible new career ahead of him’.[12] There wasn’t.            

            As good as the arrangements are throughout, it is the ‘straight’ material which appeals most to repeat listening: ‘This Is Always’, ‘St James Infirmary’, ‘Ask Me Nice’, ‘Mellow Yellow’. John shared the guitar credit with Terry Smith, presumably because he couldn’t make all of the sessions (there is never more than one guitar present). The album was an opportunity to hear John playing in a classy, structured big band setting, mostly swing-flavoured but equally capable of understatement.

Unlike the various Fame singles with which John’s name has been linked in later years, he was credited, along with all the other players, on the sleeve of The Third Face Of Fame. Georgie’s recent hit ‘The Ballad Of Bonnie & Clyde’ was added to the album, with the players involved in it (which did not include John) also fully credited. Terry Smith, incidentally, would top the ‘British Guitarist’ category in the Melody Maker’s Readers’ Polls for 1968 and 1969. Not a naturally progressive player, Terry would go on to form the British ‘jazz rock’ band If, with saxophonist Dick Morrissey, but never sustained the kind of career that might have been hoped for on the early promise of those poll ratings.

Before looking in detail at the Fame/McLaughlin discography, here is the exclusive recent interview extract very generously supplied by Uli Twelker:

Uli: How involved was John McLaughlin the 67/68 period? Was it just a case of an old friend doing a couple of studio sessions, a guest thing at a run of theatre shows, or was it the case that you hoped John would join full-time again?

Georgie: I was invited to do a short season at the Mayfair Theatre. I still got the programme. The plan was to do the first half to concentrate on the jazz side of things – I think Jon Hiseman might have been playing drums by that time. So I decided to put a kind of jazz quartet together for the first, and then the second half was more of a Blue Flames kind of set, and I asked John to be part of it – he might have been part of both, I can´t remember. I specifically got him to do the first half, because it was going to be a jazz quartet. I was asked to do a special evening which went on for a couple of weeks. It was a small theatre, a nice theatre, and we decided to do whatever the gamut of my bloody career or talents were up to that point. And my jazz interest was increasing all the time, so I decided to do the first set with some of the Chet Baker things, and other jazz things. In the band were surely John McLaughlin and I think Jon Hiseman. Maybe Lyn Dobson, and I can´t remember who played the bass. But I have the programme, I would have to look.

Uli: What´s your opinion on how John's playing/personality had developed since the days when he was in the Flamingo band?

Georgie: He had even been a jazz player when he joined the Blue Flames. He was incredible. He was in the band in 1962/63. Well, he just got better! I don´t think that at that time he had done the album with John Surman [and] with Brian Odgers, Extrapolation, a great, revolutionary album - because I didn´t meet Brian Odgers until 1969/70 when we started working together. And he had just done that album. I haven´t seen him for several years. He was very close with Alan Skidmore, and Skid hasn´t heard from him for a year or two. He lost interest in playing, I think - a pity ‘cos he was a fantastic musician. John (McLaughlin) was still in London, and also he played rhythm guitar on my recording of ‘Sunny’ in the studio. I did learn a lot from him. Just playing, chords, melody – ‘cos he was way ahead of his time. When he was playing in my band, I always thought perhaps that that was restricting for him, because it was kind of too simple for him. But he was glad to do the gig, and it was great when he got back. That time we weren´t recording anyway, we were just gigging. And then he joined Graham Bond.

Extrapolation was recorded in January 1969, just before John left for New York and a whole new career. But Georgie’s recollection of John’s involvement in ‘Sunny’ - the first of his post-Blue Flames solo releases, albeit recorded before the band split, and a minor UK hit at the end of 1966 – is previously unknown information.

Georgie’s next single A-side, ‘Sitting In The Park’, released in December 1966 has a prominent, clean rhythm guitar part with a few solo notes towards the end. The track, however, is not a stand-alone single but comes from Georgie’s Sweet Things LP of 1966 and very likely features Colin Green on guitar.

Various online McLaughlin discographies, probably all deriving from the pioneering work of Johann Heidenbauer, do however link John’s name to Georgie’s next two 45 RPM releases: ‘Because I Love You’ (a single released in March 1967) and the four-song Knock On Wood EP (released in June 1967). These discographies give identical personnel involved in both releases, including John and drummer Hughie Flint.

Hughie, working with Alexis Korner at the time, after a couple of years with John Mayall’s Bluesbreakers, was hired in as the drummer on the ‘Because I Love You’ session and would later work with John McLaughlin, in early ’68, in Pete Brown’s band. I asked him if John was on the single:

‘He’s not, is he? Maybe he is… I was in slight awe of doing a recording with them anyway because, even though I knew Georgie quite well as colleagues from the Flamingo, and I knew Lyn Dobson as well, we were good friends, to actually do a recording with quite a big band in a studio was quite new to me. I was just used to John Mayall, you know, and Alexis. So I haven’t remembered if John McLaughlin was there.’

Hughie would be the first to admit his memory is a little hazy in places but, certainly, no guitar is audible on ‘Because I Love You’. Hughie is clearer, though, on Knock On Wood – at least regarding his own involvement: ‘I certainly wasn’t on that.’
Hughie joined Georgie’s live band for a brief period in the middle of 1967 and played on The Two Faces Of Fame LP, including live tracks with the Harry South Big Band.

Simple rhythm guitar parts are audible on the Knock On Wood EP tracks and Uli Twelker believes it is played by Georgie Fame himself, with the rest of the players probably being similar to the line-up of Georgie’s concurrent LP The Two Faces Of Fame – bar Hughie Flint. One wonders, then, who the drummer was…

We’re on surer ground with Georgie’s next single, the August 1967 release ‘Try My World’, and its B-side ‘No Thanks’. The session was notable for John’s first meeting with baritone saxophonist John Surman, who would subsequently appear on John’s Extrapolation (1969) and on the jointly credited Where Fortune Smiles (recorded in New York in 1970).

Surman was a rising star on the London jazz scene but McLaughlin, while a ‘musician’s musician’, managed to traverse the decade as a somewhat mercurial presence, by no means known to every other player.

Here’s another extract from Bathed In Lightning:

‘The funny thing is,’ said John Surman, ‘that when you’re in the middle of the action it seems like there are lots of people doing lots of one really big thing, but they’re not, they’re really doing lots of different things. John was special in that he was never really one of the guys who was playing in the clubs all the time. I actually met him in the studio when we were making a record with Georgie Fame, the pop artist. John was jamming in between takes and I thought, ‘Wow, this guy really sounds great’.’[13]

            The Fame session involving John Surman and John McLaughlin was for the immortal single coupling ‘Try My World’ / ‘No Thanks’ (recorded circa July 1967). Curiously, John Surman told the Melody Maker a few months later that he never played pop sessions: ‘I don’t think you [can] do that and still give your best for your own thing.’[14]

            ‘Well, there’s pop and there’s pop!’ he concedes, on reflection. ‘I guess Georgie Fame was more interesting. I was probably booked by Alan Skidmore who was in [his band] at the time, I think. I doubt that Georgie knew much about me. I remember John M jamming on [Miles Davis’] ‘So What’ between takes and I joined in...’

Despite some discographies listing it, John was most definitely not on Georgie’s next single, December 1967’s ‘The Ballad Of Bonnie & Clyde’ (a UK No.1). While he is present on The Third Face Of Fame LP (recorded in February/March 1968), there has never been any suggestion he was on the non-album single released concurrently with it in May ’68, ‘By The Time I Get To Phoenix’.

While Georgie was a friend, not just another pop act needing a hired player on a record, John had moved on from routine sessioneering by this stage. He would appear – as a credited, featured, creative participant – on three further albums, all in a jazz vein, during the latter half of 1968: Sandy Brown’s Hair At Its Hairiest; Jack Bruce’s Things We Like; and Ken Wheeler’s Windmill Tilter. Aside from those sessions, he would spend much of that period working in Europe with Gunter Hampel’s free improvisation quartet Time Is Now.

Here, then, is the Georgie Fame/John McLaughlin discography, with some caveats indicated by question marks. Guilty parties are identified, a couple of other suspects are hauled in (awaiting definitive evidence) but still, regrettably, we can never hear what those regulars down the Flamingo were hearing in 1962, when Georgie Fame & the Blue Flames with John McLaughlin on guitar were the most exciting band in town and the ‘R&B boom’ was bubbling underground, readying itself to change British pop music on a national level the following year.

Sunny / Don’t Make Promises (Columbia DB8015) UK No.13
Recorded: London, ?/66
Released: September 19 1966
Prod: Denny Cordell

(?) Because I Love You / Bidin’ My Time (CBS 202587) UK No.15
Recorded: London, 13-17/2/67
Released: March 17 1967
Prod: Denny Cordell

(?) Knock On Wood (EP) (CBS EP 6363)
Knock On Wood / All I’m Asking / Didn’t Want To Have To Do It / Close The Door
Recorded: London, early 1967?
Released: June 2 1967

Try My World / No Thanks (CBS 2945) UK No.37
Recorded: ?/67
Released: August 1967
+ John Surman (baritone sax)

The Third Face Of Fame (LP) (CBS (S) 63293)
Recorded: London, February/March 1968
Released: May 1968
(NB Personnel below is for the LP minus ‘The Ballad Of Bonnie & Clyde’)
Georgie Fame - vocals, piano
Harry South - conductor
Ian Hamer, Derek Healey, Derek Watkins, Les Condon, Albert Hall - trumpets
John Marshall, Gib Wallace - trombones
Tony Coe, Tommy Whittle, Art Ellefson, Harry Klein, Ronnie Scott, Cyril Reubens - saxes
Gordon Beck - piano
John McLaughlin, Terry Smith - guitar
Phil Bates - bass
Bill Eyden - drums

Note:
The Georgie Fame 3CD set The In Crowd (Verve, 1998) credits John without being specific on tracks. Johann Haidenbauer and Uli Twelker believe that the previously unreleased ‘Jelly Jelly’ and ‘Lil' Darlin’’ feature playing that suggest John. There was reputedly a further session of unreleased material around the time of The Third Face Of Fame recordings.

Endnotes:


[1] The Beatles And Some Other Guys (Omnibus Press, 1997), Pete Frame

[2] ‘It’s Tough At The Bottom’, Georgie Fame, Radio Luxembourg Annual, 1965

[3] ‘Georgie Fame: Fanning the Flames’, Chris Welch, Melody Maker, 3 August 1974

[4] The Beatles And Some Other Guys (Omnibus Press, 1997), Pete Frame

[5] Awopbopaloobop Alopbamboom (Weidenfield & Nicolson,1969), Nik Cohn

[6] Ian Samwell interviewed by Nick Rossi; extract posted online 29/8/06; http://launch.groups.yahoo.com/group/georgiefame/message/2051 Accessed: 29/10/12

[7] Melody Maker, 6/1/68

[8] Review of Knock On Wood EP, Frederick Woods, The Gramophone, 3/68

[9] Melody Maker, 6/1/68

[10] Melody Maker, 11/11/67

[11] Sleevenote to The Third Face Of Fame, Nigel Hunter, 1968

[12] Review of The Third Face Of Fame, Frederick Woods, The Gramophone, 6/68

[13] John Surman interview, Bill Shoemaker, Point Of Departure, 7/09. Accessed 29/11/12 at: http://johnsurman.com/?page_id=72

[14] Melody Maker, 28/4/68